Mucociliary clearance system in lung defense. Vargas M. Becario Conicyt. Becaria Conicyt.
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Fenoterol versus salbutamol nebulization in asthma. PubMed Central. A double-blind crossover study was conducted in 10 stable asthmatics comparing 5 mg fenoterol with 5 mg salbutamol , both given via a Hudson nebulizer.
Although both drugs caused significant bronchodilatation at the doses used, fenoterol had a significantly greater peak effect than salbutamol and its duration of action was 4 hr as opposed to 3 hr. Treatment of proctalgia fugax with salbutamol inhalation. Although no generally effective treatment for proctalgia fugax is known, inhalation of salbutamol has been reported to shorten pain attacks in isolated cases.
We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inhaled salbutamol in 18 patients with proctalgia fugax. The clinical effect was evaluated by recording the duration of severe pain and discomfort during acute attacks. In addition, anorectal motility recordings were analyzed for possible changes in anal resting tone, sphincter relaxation during rectal distension and in rectal compliance prior to and following administration of the two test substances. Sixteen patients completed all investigations.
The effect was most marked in patients having prolonged attacks. In the asymptomatic state, neither salbutamol nor placebo led to a significant change in anal resting pressure, anal relaxation during rectal distension, or rectal compliance.
Salbutamol also did not alter the threshold for rectal sensation. Salbutamol inhalation shortens attacks of severe pain in patients with proctalgia fugax.
The mechanism of this effect remains unexplained. Salbutamol intake and substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise. Gas exchange was monitored and blood samples were collected during exercise for GH, ACTH, insulin, and blood glucose and lactate determination. With salbutamol versus placebo, there was no significant difference in total energy expenditure and substrate oxidation, but the substrate oxidation balance was significantly modified after 40 min of exercise.
ACTH was significantly decreased with salbutamol during the last 10 min of exercise, whereas no difference was found between the two treatments in the other hormonal and metabolic parameters. The theory that the ergogenic effect of salbutamol results from a change in substrate oxidation has little support during relatively short term endurance exercise, but it is conceivable that longer exercise duration can generate positive findings. In order to solve the problem of on-site rapid detection of salbutamol residues in feed and animal products, and develop a new method of fast detection of salbutamol on the basis of the molecular imprinting technology, this article uses the salbutamol SAL working as template molecule, methacrylic acid MAA working as functional monomer.
On this basis, a new type of core-shell type salbutamol molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared with colloidal gold particles as triggering core. The results indicated that a stable hydrogen bonding complex has been formed between the carboxyl groups of SAL and MA with a matching ratio of The complex can be easily eluted by the reagent containing hydrogen bonding.
The chemical binding constant K reaches Specific cavities were formed after the template molecules in MIPs were removed. It was proved by the adsorption experiment that the specific sites in these cavities highly match with the chemical and space structure of SAL.
Effect of salbutamol on innervated and denervated rat soleus muscle. The objective of the present investigation was to perform a day time-course study of treatment with salbutamol , a beta2 adrenoceptor agonist, on rat soleus muscle in order to assess fiber type selectivity in the hypertrophic response and fiber type composition.
Salbutamol was injected intraperitoneally in the rats of the 2nd and 4th groups at a concentration of 0. The muscles were denervated using the crush method with pean. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, and 14 days after treatment.
Frozen cross-sections of soleus muscle were stained for myosin ATPase, pH 9. Cross-sectional area and percent of muscle fibers were analyzed morphometrically by computerized image analysis. Denervation caused marked atrophy of all fibers and conversion from type I to type II muscle fibers. Denervated muscles treated with salbutamol showed a significantly larger cross-sectional area of type I muscle fibers, Moreover, the number of type I fibers was increased.
These results indicate that administration of salbutamol is able to induce changes in cross-sectional area and fiber type distribution in the early phase of treatment. Since denervation-induced atrophy and conversion from type I to type II fibers were improved by salbutamol treatment we propose that salbutamol , like other beta2 adrenoceptor agonists, may have a therapeutic potential in improving the condition of skeletal muscle after denervation.
Salbutamol in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies. It is one of the most commonly encountered medicines in paediatric practice and the authors have found that an understanding of its pharmacology in clinical practice is incredibly helpful. In this article, we discuss its pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, practical prescribing points and some unresolved issues surrounding its use, which should serve to provide an essential working knowledge for the busy paediatrician.
Cardiovascular and hypokalaemic effects of inhaled salbutamol , fenoterol, and isoprenaline. The cardiovascular and hypokalaemic effects of equal doses of inhaled fenoterol, isoprenaline and salbutamol were compared in eight healthy male volunteers, in a double blind, placebo controlled study.
Increasing doses of , , and micrograms were given from a metered dose inhaler at 15 minute intervals, followed by measurements of heart rate, blood pressure, total electromechanical systole as a measure of inotropic response , QTc interval, and plasma potassium concentration.
After repeated inhalation, fenoterol resulted in significantly greater chronotropic, electrocardiographic, and hypokalaemic effects than either isoprenaline or salbutamol. The maximum inotropic effect of fenoterol was similar to that of isoprenaline.
Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of salbutamol and bromhexine in tablets. Typical anti-mucolytic drugs called salbutamol hydrochloride and bromhexine sulfate encountered in tablets were determined simultaneously either by using linear regression at zero-crossing wavelengths of the first derivation of UV-spectra or by application of multiple linear partial least squares regression method.
The results obtained by the two proposed mathematical methods were compared with those obtained by the HPLC technique. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous.
There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide.
Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction FPF of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide and systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate.
These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature. Effect of salbutamol on neuromuscular function in endurance athletes. The potential ergogenic effects of therapeutic inhaled salbutamol doses in endurance athletes have been controversially discussed for decades. We hypothesized that salbutamol inhalation may increase peripheral muscle contractility, reduce fatigability, and improve force recovery after a localized exercise in endurance athletes.
Femoral nerve magnetic stimulation was used during and after MVC to evaluate neuromuscular fatigue after each set, at task failure, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
Currently, all commercial available nebulized salbutamol in China is in its racemic form. It is known that only R- salbutamol eutomer has therapeutic effects, while S- salbutamol distomer may exacerbate asthma after chronic use. Therefore, it is an unmet clinical need to develop R- salbutamol as a nebulized product that is more convenient for young and old patients. In our study, a stable aerosol solution of R- salbutamol sulfate was established, and its antiasthmatic effects were confirmed.
Laser diffractometer was used to characterize the droplet-size distribution DSD of both solutions. We next conducted an in vivo animal study to document the antiasthmatic effect of R- salbutamol aerosol sulfate solution and determine the relationship to RS- salbutamol.
The results showed that the R- salbutamol sulfate solution was more stable at pH 6. In vitro comparison studies indicated that there was no distribution difference between R- salbutamol sulfate solution and the commercial RS- salbutamol solution. The animal results showed that R- salbutamol was more potent than RS- salbutamol against the same dose of histamine challenge.
Unlike commercial RS- salbutamol , which was acidified to a pH of 3. This study measured the concentrations of salbutamol residues in red and white hair of cattle during and after salbutamol administration. Salbutamol concentrations were determined on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of administration and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, and 70 following the last administration dose using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from hair were determined. In white hair, salbutamol concentrations changed from 4. The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from white hair on Days 1 and 7 were Our findings revealed that hair is an appropriate biological matrix for assessing the illegal use of salbutamol in animal husbandry.
Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. The role of various surfactants on the release of salbutamol from suppositories. Salbutamol is a selective beta 2 -adrenoreceptor agonist with different pharmacological effects.
In this research because of the simplicity of suppository application in elderly and its higher plasma concentration than tablets as well as its particular indication in premature labour, salbutamol suppositories were prepared.
The suppositories were formulated containing 10 mg of the drug and Witepsol H15, the oleaginous soluble base using melting method. To optimize the release rate of drug, different surfactants namely, sodium lauryl sulphate SLS as an ionic surfactant and Tween 80 as well as Arlacel 60 as non-ionic surfactants with different HLBs were chosen. The effect of surfactant concentration on the release rate of salbutamol from suppositories were also investigated. All prepared formulations fulfilled the specifications set down in British Pharmacopoeia.
As anionic surfactants, such as SLS, cause greater damage on mucosa than non-ionic surfactant, such as Tween 80, this study recommended that Tween 80 could be added in suppository formulation in order to increase the dissolution rate of salbutamol. It was also shown that the release rate of salbutamol altered linearly with the amount of Tween 80 in suppository formulations. With athletes, 6. Recently, an elite athlete undertook two pharmacokinetic studies and the results have raised several questions.
These include whether WADA should continue to permit nebulized salbutamol as an acceptable method of inhalation and there is some justification for nebulized salbutamol to be prohibited in sport. Another question is whether the modified advisory on salbutamol in the List appropriately informs athletes of the risks of exceeding the urinary threshold and the recent changes may not inform athletes optimally. Finally, concern is expressed at the persistent failure of WADA to apply a correction down to a specific gravity of 1.
It is recommended that this should be implemented. Differential inhibition of hepatic and duodenal sulfation of - - salbutamol and minoxidil by mefenamic acid.
Vademécum Académico de Medicamentos