ASHUTOSH PRAMANIK ELECTROMAGNETISM PDF

PHI Learning Pvt. The second edition of Electromagnetism: Theory and Applications has been updated to cover some additional aspects of theory and nearly all modern applications. The semi-historical approach is unchanged, but further historical comments have been introduced at various places in the book to give a better insight into the development of the subject as well as to make the study more interesting and palatable to the students. What is New to This Edition Vector transformations in different coordinate systems have been included in the chapter on Vector Analysis.

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Ashutosh Pramanik. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Fifth Printing Second Edition June, Published by Asoke K. To the revered memory of. A Appendix 1 The Principle of Duality — A. Appendix 10 Bicylindrical Coordinate System — A. Appendix 11 Method of Moments — A. The good response received by this book from various institutes and universities, has encouraged me to make some additions and a few minor changes in this edition.

The basic structure of the book and the philosophy of presentation of the subject matter, of course, have remained unchanged. A substantial amount of additional material, mostly dealing with applications, has been incorporated. To start with, the vector transformations in different coordinate systems, have now been included. The topics of Electrostatics and Magnetostatics had already been dealt with, fairly adequately, and hence remain unaltered.

Some historical comments have been introduced at various places in the book, in order to enhance the understanding of the process of development of the subject. Since the Bessel functions and the Legendre functions are widely used in waveguides and antennae, an appendix dealing with the properties of these functions, has now been provided. The chapter on the vector potential has been significantly expanded as the need for a clearer understanding of the properties of the vector potentials, has now become increasingly important because more and more three-dimensional electromagnetic problems not merely static problems are being solved numerically.

The simplicity of the vector potential for two-dimensional problems is no longer there, as in three-dimensional problems, the magnetic vector potential A would have more than one component. A device which has not been much exploited in the numerical solutions is the Hertz vector Ze or Zm.

Hence a section dealing with its derivation and interpretation has been included in this chapter. One of the great attractions of the Hertz vector has been that it combines in itself the capabilities of the vector potential as well as the scalar potential and thus eliminates the need for using the two potentials for the complete solution.

Though the Hertz vector has been used mostly for wave problems so far, this is not an essential restriction for this vector, as its general definition does include the conducting region parameter s and hence can be used for solving the eddy current problems where required.

A practical problem on induction heating has now been added to the chapter on Magnetic Diffusion as an illustration of the analysis of a practical device. Though the topic of wave propagation had been dealt with adequately and comprehensively, the topics of wave guidance and radiation have now been expanded with emphasis on the practical aspects.

This requirement has come up due to new development like optical fibres, and I have used the present opportunity to make suitable additions to both in waveguides and antennae.

The characteristics of antennae and arrays have now been considered in some detail, so that the mathematical basis has now been better balanced by practical details. The chapter on special relativity now includes the effects of Lorentz transformation on both forces and energy. This has now been supplemented by a simple description of the procedural details of the method so as to enable the reader to use the method without going into the heavy mathematics underlying the method.

A short description of the FDTD finite difference in time domain has been added because this method is now being used to analyse microstrip antennae.

However a short description of the method of moments MOM has been put in a separate appendix because even though it is being used numerically, it is basically an integral method. The inclusion of this method is justified because quite a large range of problems relating to antennae are being solved by MOM. This chapter contains brief descriptions of topics ranging from microwaves and satellite communications to maglev systems for transportations.

Finally the Appendix 6 which dealt with non- conservative fields, has now been expanded further to have a relook at the concept of self-inductance. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Kulkarni of the Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay, who was instrumental in organizing my stay as a visiting faculty member in his department, and also for his interest in the subject of Electromagnetism.

I had many stimulating discussions with him which have helped me in selecting the material for this edition. My sincere thanks are also due to Prof.

His refreshing and lucid approach to the topic along with his book on Electromagnetic waves have been the source of inspiration for me to make the necessary additions to the topics of Electromagnetic Waves described here. I am indebted to Prof. It was Prof.

I take this opportunity to thank him for his interest and for the discussions I had with him. The discussions I had with them have resulted in some of the additions to this book. I am also indebted to Mr. Ramaswamy of Crompton Greaves, Mumbai for his interest and stimulating discussions on various aspects of electromagnetism, particularly on topics related to non-conservative fields of Appendix VI in this book. I would take this opportunity to thank my old friend Mr.

Kulkarni and thus started this whole sequence of events. My thanks are also due to Mr. Ramaswamy, Regional Sales Manager, Mr. Darshan Kumar, Senior Editor, and Ms.

Pushpita Ghosh, Managing Editor of Prentice-Hall of India for their interest and support in bringing out this edition successfully. Last but not the least, my thanks are due to my daughter Mrinmayee for her constant encouragement and support for completing this job and my wife Lalita for her patience and forbearance during this period. I have tried to eliminate the printing errors and omissions as far as possible, but it is likely that some would have been missed out.

I shall be grateful to all the readers who would kindly bring to my notice any such missed-out errors, which can then be eliminated in subsequent printruns and editions. This book is the culmination of a long experience in both industrial research as well as teaching in academic and professional world in more than one country, dealing with mostly electromagnetic problems in engineering. There are, of course, a number of good books on electromagnetism for students and engineers and scientists in industries and research institutes.

But most of these books have a strong bias towards wave problems and high frequency engineering. There has been, in general, a tendency to gloss over in-depth exposition of eddy current problems in most of these books, with a few minor exceptions. Even there, mostly simple and highly idealized problems, away from real-life situations, have only been considered. While working in industrial research in the UK and India, in the area of applied electromagnetism dealing with problems of eddy current effects and associated loss and force calculations in generating and allied equipment, a need for a book on electromagnetism dealing comprehensively with eddy current aspects was strongly felt.

The feeling for this need was further enhanced while teaching electromagnetism to engineering students in the UK to both power engineering as well as high frequency electronics at undergraduate and postgraduate levels as well as to design and development engineers in industry in India.

Most of the present textbooks and reference books on electromagnetism have dealt in great details the problems of wave propagation, transmission, reflection and refraction in different media, while paying relatively scant attention to magnetic diffusion and current distributions in conducting media.

The present book has tried to correct this imbalance without in any way sacrificing the details of the study of electromagnetic waves. Any book on electromagnetism would require a certain minimum level of mathematical knowledge on the part of the readers, though the necessary mathematical knowledge has been kept to a minimum.

The book assumes a knowledge of basic differential and integral calculus and elementary differential equations, and an introductory chapter on applications of vector calculus has been added to help and remind the readers about those aspects of vectors which are necessary and are used in the study of the subject.

From this point of view, the students of applied mathematics and theoretical physics may find a certain lack of mathematical rigour and elegance at some places in the book, but this has been found necessary in order to keep in mind the need for explaining the physical aspects. Advanced mathematical concepts, wherever they have been used, have been usually explained before showing their usage in applications.

Use of tensor calculus has been avoided in the most of the text, till the last but one chapter which deals with the relativistic aspects of electromagnetism, necessary for explaining the behaviour of homopolar machines. However in a textbook for students, it is not possible to adhere to strict historical sequence, because of certain conceptual difficulties that arise during the learning of various topics. Hence after starting with electrostatics followed by electric current and then magnetostatics, it has been necessary to bring in quasi-static magnetic fields before completing the study of magnetostatics.

One of the main reasons for such a break-up is that a topic like inductance cannot be explained completely on the basis of magnetostatics only and hence quasi-static magnetism and electromagnetic induction have to be brought in before completing static magnetism. In this context, this book presents, for the first time in the history of electro- magnetism , the concept of electric vector potential, as developed by C.

Carpenter, because of its wide applicability in solving eddy current problems. Also, while discussing the energy transfer process, the energy vectors other than Poynting vector have been described in some detail, as for example Slepian vectors. This has been done because in spite of the simplicity, elegance and wide acceptance of the Poynting vector, it does not explain fully the inside mechanism of the energy transfer process and some of the Slepian vectors seem to offer a more acceptable explanation of the processes.

There are other topics, such as mechanical forces due to time-varying currents, magnetic field analysis of electro-mechanical energy transfer and a variety of eddy current problems that have been overlooked in books on electromagnetics, which have been now included here. Finally, the approach to electromagnetism via special relativity has now assumed greater importance from practical viewpoint. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject for the students.

Even though the present move in teaching is for shorter courses on electromagnetism, the need for a comprehensive book with latest developments included becomes greater because the student has to do a greater amount of self-study to complement the shorter teaching hours.

First and foremost I would like to thank very sincerely and deeply my guide and friend Mr. Henderson of the department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, the University of Birmingham, who first introduced me to electro- magnetic problems and then guided and helped me during my research in academic world as well as in industry. I also wish to record my thanks to Mr. Layton and Dr. MacClean Reader in Electromagnetism of the same department for stimulating and interesting discussions I had with them during my stay in the department.

I acknowledge gratefully the help I received regarding the presentation of guided waves. I would like to express my thanks and gratefulness to Late Prof. Carter of the department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, the University of Leeds, for his help and discussions in collecting my material for this book.

In fact on his day of retirement Prof. Carter which are my treasured possessions now. I have borrowed-freely and copiously in preparing the Chapter 20 of this book.

Lawrenson, F. Some of the other colleagues whose help and discussions I would like to acknowledge are Dr. Stephenson, Mr. McDermott, Dr. Richardson and Mr. Corporate Research and Development, at Hyderabad for the various stimulating discussions and arguments I had with them, during my stewardship of the Laboratory. I would like to mention particularly Mr.

Bhaway, Mr.

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Pure Maths from Nagpur University. He also holds an M. After nearly 18 years of research and teaching experience in UK, Dr. Throughout his professional career, he has been instrumental in making several scientific contributions in the field of electromagnetism. Pramanik has been D. This book [earlier titled as Electromagnetism: Theory and Applications which is bifurcated into two volumes: Electromagnetism: Theory and Electromagnetism: Applications Magnetic Diffusion and Electromagnetic Waves has been updated to cover some additional aspects of theory and nearly all modern applications. The semi-historical approach is unchanged, but further historical comments have been introduced at various places in the book to give a better insight into the development of the subject as well as to make the study more interesting and palatable to the students.

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Ashutosh Pramanik. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Fifth Printing Second Edition

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