DIGITAL MORPHOGENESIS NEIL LEACH PDF

Digital Morphogenesis Standfirst to be written by Helen Castle. Neil Leach , to be by Helen Castle. Neil Leach , Standfirst to be written by Helen Castle. Neil Leach , Standfirst to be writtenby Helen Castle.

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Architectures of the Near Future Guest-edited by Nic Clear In this highly pertinent issue, guest-editor Nic Clear questions received notions of the future. Are the accepted norms of economic growth and expansion the only means by which society can develop and prosper?

Should the current economic crisis be making us call into question a future of unlimited growth? Can this moment of crisis — economic, environmental and technological — enable us to make more informed choices about the type of future that we want and can actually achieve? Architectures of the Near Future offers a series of alternative voices, developing some of the neglected areas of contemporary urban life and original visions of what might be to come.

Rather than providing simplistic and seductive images of an intangible shiny future, it rocks the cosy world of architecture with polemical blasts. Patterns of Architecture Guest-edited by Mark Garcia Pattern-making is ubiquitous in both the natural and manmade world. The human propensity for pattern recognition and fabrication is innate. Encompassing the historical, vernacular and parametric, this title explores the creation, materialisation and theorisation of some of the world's most significant and spectacularly patterned spaces.

It investigates how interiors, buildings, cities and landscapes are patterned through design, production and manufacturing, use, time, accident and perception.

Extending patterns far beyond the surface notion of style and decoration, Patterns of Architecture assesses how and why the deployment of patterns is shaping the future of architecture. Since the early s, Turkey has undergone a remarkable economic recovery, accompanied by urban development and a cultural flowering.

Positioned between an expanding European Union and an unstable Middle East, the country provides a fascinating interface between the Occident and the Orient. Taking into account the current political concerns with a potential clash of Eastern and Western cultures, Turkey is poised at a vital global crossroads. To order and subscribe see page No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP, UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher.

Subscribe to 4 4 is published bimonthly and is available to purchase on both a subscription basis and as individual volumes at the following prices. Periodicals postage paid at Jamaica, NY Individual rate subscriptions must be paid by personal cheque or credit card.

Individual rate subscriptions may not be resold or used as library copies. All prices are subject to change without notice. Editorial architectural production in the last decade or so might also be shifted up a gear and transferred to urban design. Formally, certain advanced parametric design tools are a strong influence on the aesthetic throughout the issue. This is at its most evident in the masterplans of Helen Castle.

Zaha Hadid Architects, the Design Research Laboratory DRL at the Architectural Association and the digital towers section, which features work by architects and premier architecture schools from around the. Working to a brief for 3, housing units, the normative isolated high-rise building type is replaced by a series of mid-rise buildings that incline to minimise structural spans and interconnect in order to maximise the area for housing development.

Lindsay Bresser, Claudia Dorner and Sergio Reyes Rodriguez, , Design Research Lab DRL , Architectural Association, London, challenges the proliferation of haphazard urbanisation and incoherent architecture resulting from the accelerated globalisation of the Gulf region via research on the algorithmic and geometric principles inherent in traditional Arabic patterns.

This algorithmic approach constitutes the basis for a new scripted morphology generating variation and difference across urban fields, clusters and architectural systems. The proposal aims to create diverse, interactive metropolitan spaces that challenge the generic and disconnected qualities of the current Dubai model by offering flexibility within a repetitive coherence.

For some time now, digital technologies have had a substantial impact on architectural design. From the use of standard drafting packages to the more experimental use of generative design tools, they have come to play a major role in architectural production. But how might these digital technologies help us to design cities? It would seem that we are now entering a new threshold condition, as the application of these tools has begun to shift up a scale to the level of the urban.

This issue tracks these developments, and considers the real potential of using these tools not only to design better cities for the future, but also to understand and analyse our existing cities, and navigate them in new ways. Otto and illustrating his argument with a series of large-scale urban projects by Zaha Hadid Architects.

The world of philosophy, it would seem, can still offer incisive insights into the increasingly technological landscape of today. It is built by a construction engine — the Viab — that secretes the landscape through which it moves. The question then arises as to how these digital tools can be used at a larger scale to generate and model cities.

But Manuel DeLanda is more cautious in his approach. For him, it is a question of not looking at form itself, but at the decisionmaking processes that lead to the generation of form.

Only then will we be in a position to simulate convincingly the growth of actual cities. The theme of generating designs is taken further in the section on digital towers, which explores the potential of new digital tools to design architecture at the level of the individual building. The featured towers have been designed by a range of students and practising architects.

None has been constructed, but together they offer us an overview of a new approach towards designing large-scale urban buildings harnessing increasingly popular digital techniques. Such digital tools, though, may also be used to understand and analyse the operations of cities. One of the leading pioneers in using digital tools to model cities and understand the way that they operate has been Space Syntax Ltd.

Alain Chiaradia outlines the principles behind the logic of Space Syntax, illustrating them with a study of Tower Hamlets in London. The project aims at developing a series of prototypes that would integrate the sprawl and high-rise typologies.

In order to describe possible scenarios of city growth over 20 years, an adaptive density tool based on changing floor area ratio and programmatic distribution was developed. This has always been a space-filling system of politics and economy. The lack of adaptive growth strategies has resulted in a multitude of irregular-shaped voids. Here a new space-filling system is designed to embrace different sites and programmes and to react according to its context. This new technique would follow the logic of a fractal and therefore recursively densify void spaces.

As a testing scenario the system was implemented in one of the densest parts of the City of London where there is a real need for more space. Rhino scripting and Grasshopper are then used to generate the building themselves.

Equally, the city itself has also been transformed by digital technologies. The contributions in this issue from Vicente Guallart and Benjamin Bratton explore the question of how we are hooked up within a digital information superhighway. Together these articles offer an important overview of a certain crucial moment in time when digital technologies began to have a significant impact on the way that we design and think about our cities.

As this issue demonstrates, a number of key architects, planners and theorists have begun to engage with the question of the digital city in a highly insightful way. Parametricism A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design Though parametricism has its roots in the digital animation techniques of the mids, it has only fully emerged in recent years with the development of advanced parametric design systems. Patrik Schumacher explains why parametricism has become the dominant, single style for avant-garde practice today and why it is particularly suited to large-scale urbanism as exemplified by a series of competition-winning masterplans by Zaha Hadid Architects.

There is a global convergence in recent avant-garde architecture that justifies its designation as a new style: parametricism. It is a style rooted in digital animation techniques, its latest refinements based on advanced parametric design systems and scripting methods.

Developed over the past 15 years and now claiming hegemony within avant-garde architecture practice, it succeeds Modernism as the next long wave of systematic innovation. Parametricism finally brings to an end the transitional phase of uncertainty engendered by the crisis of Modernism and marked by a series of relatively short-lived architectural episodes that included Postmodernism, Deconstructivism and Minimalism.

So pervasive is the application of its techniques that parametricism is now evidenced at all scales from architecture to interior design to large urban design. The urban fabric comprises both cross towers and perimeter blocks. The image shows the morphological range of the perimeter block type. Blocks are split into four quadrants allowing for a secondary, pedestrian path system. At certain network crossing points the block system is assimilated to the tower system: each block sponsors one of the quadrants to form a pseudo-tower around a network crossing point.

Parametricism as Style Avant-garde architecture and urbanism are going through a cycle of innovative adaptation — retooling and refashioning the discipline to meet the socioeconomic demands of the post-Fordism era.

The mass society that was characterised by a universal consumption standard has evolved into the heterogeneous society of the multitude, marked by a proliferation of lifestyles and extensive work-path differentiation. It is the task of architecture and urbanism to organise and articulate the increased complexity of our post-Fordist society. Contemporary avant-garde architecture and urbanism seek to address this societal demand via a rich panoply of parametric design techniques.

However, what confronts us is a new style rather than merely a new set of techniques. The techniques in question — the employment of animation, simulation and form-finding tools, as well as parametric modelling and scripting — have inspired a new collective movement with radically new ambitions and values. In turn, this development has led to many new, systematically connected design problems that are being worked on competitively by a global network of design researchers.

Not long ago we witnessed an accelerated, cumulative build-up of virtuosity, resolution and refinement facilitated by the simultaneous development of parametric design tools and scripts that allow the precise formulation and execution of intricate correlations between elements and subsystems.

The shared concepts, computational techniques, formal repertoires and tectonic logics that characterise this work are crystallising into a solid new hegemonic paradigm for architecture. Parametricism emerges from the creative exploitation of parametric design systems in the course of articulating increasingly complex social processes and institutions.

That parametric design tools themselves do not account for this profound shift in style from Modernism to parametricism is evidenced by the fact that late Modernist architects are employing parametric tools in ways which result in the maintenance of a Modernist aesthetic, using parametric modelling inconspicuously to absorb complexity. The parametricist sensibility, however, pushes in the opposite direction, aiming for maximum emphasis on conspicuous differentiation and the visual amplification differentiating logics.

Aesthetically, it is the elegance4 of ordered complexity and the sense of seamless fluidity, akin to natural systems that constitute the hallmark of parametricism. Here, stable self-identity is as much a necessary precondition of evolution as it is in the case of organic life. To hold on to the new principles in the face of difficulties is crucial for the chance of eventual success, something that is incompatible with an understanding of styles as transient fashions. Negative heuristics formulates strictures that prevent relapse into old patterns that are not fully consistent with the core; positive heuristics offers guiding principles and preferred techniques that allow the work to fast-forward in a particular direction.

Styles as Design Research Programmes Avant-garde styles can be interpreted and evaluated analogously to new scientific paradigms, affording a new conceptual framework and formulating new aims, methods and values. Thus a new direction for concerted research work is established. Defining Heuristics and Pertinent Agendas The defining heuristics of parametricism is fully reflected in the taboos and dogmas of contemporary avant-garde design culture:.

Parametricism can only exist via the continuous advancement and sophisticated appropriation of computational geometry. Finally, computationally advanced design techniques such as scripting in Mel-script or Rhino-script and parametric modelling with tools such as GC or DP are becoming a pervasive reality such that it is no longer possible to compete within the contemporary avant-garde architecture scene without mastering and refining them.

However, the advancement of techniques should go hand in hand with the formulation of yet more ambitions and goals. The real-time registration of use patterns drives the real-time kinetic adaptation. The built environment thus acquires responsive agency at different timescales. The differentiation in any one system is correlated with differentiations in the other systems.

The associated system should accentuate the initial differentiation such that a far richer articulation is achieved and more orienting visual information made available. Beyond object parameters, ambient parameters and observer parameters have to be integrated into the parametric system.

In addition, the systematic modulation of architectural morphologies produces powerful urban effects and facilitates field orientation. The goal is deep relationality, the total integration of the evolving built environment, from urban distribution to architectural morphology, detailed tectonic articulation and interior organisation.

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Digital morphogenesis

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Digital Morphogenesis - Neil Leach

Architectures of the Near Future Guest-edited by Nic Clear In this highly pertinent issue, guest-editor Nic Clear questions received notions of the future. Are the accepted norms of economic growth and expansion the only means by which society can develop and prosper? Should the current economic crisis be making us call into question a future of unlimited growth? Can this moment of crisis — economic, environmental and technological — enable us to make more informed choices about the type of future that we want and can actually achieve?

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Digital morphogenesis is a type of generative art in which complex shape development, or morphogenesis , is enabled by computation. This concept is applicable in many areas of design, art, architecture, and modeling. The concept was originally developed in the field of biology , later in geology , geomorphology , and architecture. In architecture , it describes tools and methods for creating forms and adapting them to a known environment.

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