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He was one of the founders of Western Marxism , an interpretive tradition that departed from the Marxist ideological orthodoxy of the Soviet Union. He developed the theory of reification , and contributed to Marxist theory with developments of Karl Marx's theory of class consciousness. He was also a philosopher of Leninism. He ideologically developed and organised Lenin's pragmatic revolutionary practices into the formal philosophy of vanguard-party revolution.

He had a brother and sister. From to , he was part of a theatre troupe that produced modernist , psychologically realistic plays by Henrik Ibsen , August Strindberg , and Gerhart Hauptmann. He became a committed Marxist in this period and joined the fledgling Communist Party of Hungary in A moment, we have to use". He was arrested but was saved from extradition due to a group of writers including Thomas and Heinrich Mann. Although these essays display signs of what Vladimir Lenin referred to as " ultra-leftism ", they provided Leninism with a substantive philosophical basis.

In , he published a critical review of Nikolai Bukharin 's manual of historical materialism. His "Blum theses" of called for the overthrow of the counter-revolutionary regime of Admiral Horthy in Hungary by a strategy similar to the Popular Fronts that arose in the s.

He advocated a "democratic dictatorship" of the proletariat and peasantry as a transitional stage leading to the dictatorship of the proletariat.

As a member of the Hungarian Communist Party , he took part in establishing the new Hungarian government. Between and he strongly criticised non-communist philosophers and writers. He thought it should play out in terms of competing cultures, not by "administrative" measures.

The party used him to help purge the Hungarian Writers' Union in — Due to his role in Nagy's government, he was no longer trusted by the party apparatus. He returned to Budapest in Without a genuine general theory of society and its movement, one does not get away from Stalinism. Stalin was a great tactician But Stalin, unfortunately, was not a Marxist The essence of Stalinism lies in placing tactics before strategy, practice above theory The bureaucracy generated by Stalinism is a tremendous evil.

Society is suffocated by it. Everything becomes unreal, nominalistic. People see no design, no strategic aim, and do not move In capitalist societies, human properties, relations and actions are transformed into properties, relations and actions of man-produced things, which become independent of man and govern his life. These man-created things are then imagined to be originally independent of man. Moreover, human beings are transformed into thing-like beings which do not behave in a human way but according to the laws of the thing-world.

As late as —, he still defended these ideas, in an unfinished manuscript, which he called Tailism and the Dialectic. Orthodox Marxism, therefore, does not imply the uncritical acceptance of the results of Marx's investigations. It is not the 'belief' in this or that thesis, nor the exegesis of a 'sacred' book. On the contrary, orthodoxy refers exclusively to method. It is the scientific conviction that dialectical materialism is the road to truth and that its methods can be developed, expanded and deepened only along the lines laid down by its founders.

He criticises Marxist revisionism by calling for the return to this Marxist method, which is fundamentally dialectical materialism. For this reason the task of orthodox Marxism, its victory over Revisionism and utopianism can never mean the defeat, once and for all, of false tendencies. It is an ever-renewed struggle against the insidious effects of bourgeois ideology on the thought of the proletariat.

Marxist orthodoxy is no guardian of traditions, it is the eternally vigilant prophet proclaiming the relation between the tasks of the immediate present and the totality of the historical process. According to him, "The premise of dialectical materialism is, we recall: 'It is not men's consciousness that determines their existence, but on the contrary, their social existence that determines their consciousness.

Only when the core of existence stands revealed as a social process can existence be seen as the product, albeit the hitherto unconscious product, of human activity. In line with Marx's thought, he criticises the individualist bourgeois philosophy of the subject , which founds itself on the voluntary and conscious subject. Against this ideology , he asserts the primacy of social relations. Existence — and thus the world — is the product of human activity; but this can be seen only if the primacy of social process on individual consciousness is accepted.

He conceives the problem in the relationship between theory and practice. Ideology determines the "form of objectivity ", thus the very structure of knowledge. Thus, the so-called eternal " laws " of economics are dismissed as the ideological illusion projected by the current form of objectivity "What is Orthodoxical Marxism? He also writes: "It is only when the core of being has showed itself as social becoming, that the being itself can appear as a product, so far unconscious, of human activity, and this activity, in turn, as the decisive element of the transformation of being.

Society subordinates production entirely to the increase of exchange-value and crystallises relations between human beings in to object-values. He is a mere unit of labour force, an article to be bought and sold according to the laws of the market.

Division of labour becomes increasingly specialised and particularised, confining the individual's productive activity to a more and more narrow range of skills. As the bourgeoisie plays the dominant role in this system, it is contrary to its own interests to understand the system's transient historical character.

Bourgeois philosophy understands only empirical reality or normative ethics; it lacks the cognitive ability to grasp reality as a whole. Bourgeois rationalism has no interest in phenomena beyond what is calculable and predictable. When the proletariat becomes aware of its situation as a mere commodity in bourgeois society, it will be able to understand the social mechanism as a whole. The self-knowledge of the proletariat is more than just a perception of the world; it is a historical movement of emancipation, a liberation of humanity from the tyranny of reification.

His important work in literary criticism began early in his career, with The Theory of the Novel , a seminal work in literary theory and the theory of genre.

The book is a history of the novel as a form, and an investigation into its distinct characteristics. In The Theory of the Novel , he coins the term " transcendental homelessness ", which he defines as the "longing of all souls for the place in which they once belonged, and the 'nostalgia… for utopian perfection, a nostalgia that feels itself and its desires to be the only true reality'".

This introduction also contains his famous dismissal of Theodor Adorno and others in Western Marxism as having taken up residence in the "Grand Hotel Abyss". This view was expressed in his later book The Historical Novel published in Russian in , then in Hungarian in , as well as in his essay " Realism in the Balance " In it he traces the development of the genre of historical fiction. While prior to , he argues, people's consciousness of history was relatively underdeveloped, the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars that followed brought about a realisation of the constantly changing, evolving character of human existence.

This new historical consciousness was reflected in the work of Sir Walter Scott, whose novels use 'representative' or 'typical' characters to dramatise major social conflicts and historical transformations, for example the dissolution of feudal society in the Scottish Highlands and the entrenchment of mercantile capitalism. For this reason he sees these authors as progressive and their work as potentially radical, despite their own personal conservative politics. After this time, historical realism begins to sicken and lose its concern with social life as inescapably historical.

For him, Flaubert's work marks a turning away from relevant social issues and an elevation of style over substance. Why he does not discuss Sentimental Education , a novel much more overtly concerned with recent historical developments, is not clear.

Practitioners of these movements, such as James Joyce, placed an emphasis on displaying the discord and disenchantment of modern life through techniques that highlight individualism and individual consciousness, such as stream of consciousness. The initial intent of "Realism in the Balance", stated at its outset, is debunking the claims of those defending Expressionism as a valuable literary movement. He rejects the notion that modern art must necessarily manifest itself as a litany of sequential movements, beginning with Naturalism , and proceeding through Impressionism and Expressionism to culminate in Surrealism.

He maintains that modernists such as Bloch are too willing to ignore the realist tradition, an ignorance that he believes derives from a modernist rejection of a crucial tenet of Marxist theory, a rejection which he quotes Bloch as propounding. He explains that the pervasiveness of capitalism, the unity in its economic and ideological theory, and its profound influence on social relations comprise a "closed integration" or "totality," an objective whole that functions independent of human consciousness.

He maintains that this dialectical relation exists between the "appearance" of events as subjective, unfettered experiences and their "essence" as provoked by the objective totality of capitalism. Conversely, modernist writers fail because they portray reality only as it appears to themselves and their characters—subjectively—and "fail to pierce the surface" of these immediate, subjective experiences "to discover the underlying essence, i.

Because the prejudices inculcated by the capitalist system are so insidious, they cannot be escaped without the abandonment of subjective experience and immediacy in the literary sphere. They can only be superseded by realist authors who "abandon and transcend the limits of immediacy, by scrutinising all subjective experiences and measuring them against social reality;" this is no easy task.

The circulation of money, he explains, as well as other elements of capitalism, is entirely abstracted away from its place in the broader capitalist system, and therefore appears as a subjective immediacy, which elides its position as a crucial element of objective totality.

Then, by employing the technique of abstraction, the author can portray the character's experience of objective reality as the same kind of subjective, immediate experience that characterise totality's influence on non-fictional individuals. The best realists, he claims, "depict the vital, but not immediately obvious forces at work in objective reality. The true masterpieces of realism can be appreciated as "wholes" which depict a wide-ranging and exhaustive objective reality like the one that exists in the non-fictional world.

Citing Nietzsche , who argues that "the mark of every form of literary decadence The work is a systematic treatment of dialectical philosophy in its materialist form. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Hungarian philosopher and critic. This article is about the philosopher. This article uses Western name order when mentioning individuals.

Budapest , Austria-Hungary. Budapest, Hungarian People's Republic. Immanuel Kant , G. Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's dialectic Marx's method Philosophy of nature. Related topics. Related categories. Further information: History and Class Consciousness.

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ISBN 13: 9788425300042

He was one of the founders of Western Marxism , an interpretive tradition that departed from the Marxist ideological orthodoxy of the Soviet Union. He developed the theory of reification , and contributed to Marxist theory with developments of Karl Marx's theory of class consciousness. He was also a philosopher of Leninism. He ideologically developed and organised Lenin's pragmatic revolutionary practices into the formal philosophy of vanguard-party revolution.


Asalto Razon by Georg Lukacs



Lukacs. El asalto a la Razón..pdf



Lukacs. El Asalto A La Razón..pdf


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