What is ideology? Can one translate with regard to it the logic of surviving that we have just glimpsed with regard to the patrimony of the idol, and what would be the interest of such an operation? The treatment of the phantomatic in The German Ideology announces or confirms the absolute privilege that Marx always grants to religion, to ideology as religion, mysticism, or theology, in his analysis of ideology in general. If the ghost gives its form, that is to say, its body, to the ideologem, then it is the essential feature [ le propre ], so to speak, of the religious, according to Marx, that is missed when one effaces the semantics or the lexicon of the spectre, as translations often do, with values deemed to be more or less equivalent fantasmagorical, hallucinatory, fantastic, imaginary, and so on.
|Published (Last):||26 March 2018|
|PDF File Size:||10.80 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||20.61 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Hauntology is probably the first major trend in critical theory to have flourished online. In October , Mark Fisher - aka k-punk - described it as "the closest thing we have to a movement, a zeitgeist". A mere three years later, Adam Harper prefaced a piece on the subject with the following caveat: "I'm all too aware that it's no longer , the year to blog about hauntology". Two months ago, James Bridle predicted that the concept was "about six months away from becoming the title of a column in a Sunday supplement magazine".
Only four months to go, then. My hunch is that hauntology is already haunting itself. The revival starts here. Like its close relative psychogeography , hauntology originated in France but struck a chord on this side of the Channel. In Spectres of Marx , where it first appeared, Jacques Derrida argued that Marxism would haunt Western society from beyond the grave.
In the original French, "hauntology" sounds almost identical to "ontology", a concept it haunts by replacing - in the words of Colin Davis - "the priority of being and presence with the figure of the ghost as that which is neither present, nor absent, neither dead nor alive".
Today, hauntology inspires many fields of investigation, from the visual arts to philosophy through electronic music , politics, fiction and literary criticism. At its most basic level, it ties in with the popularity of faux-vintage photography , abandoned spaces and TV series like Life on Mars.
Mark Fisher — whose forthcoming Ghosts of My Life Zer0 Books focuses primarily on hauntology as the manifestation of a specific "cultural moment" — acknowledges that "There's a hauntological dimension to many different aspects of culture; in fact, in Moses and Monotheism , Freud practically argues that society as such is founded on a hauntological basis: "the voice of the dead father".
When you come to think of it, all forms of representation are ghostly. Works of art are haunted, not only by the ideal forms of which they are imperfect instantiations, but also by what escapes representation. See, for instance, Borges 's longing to capture in verse the " other tiger , that which is not in verse".
Or Maurice Blanchot , who outlines what could be described as a hauntological take on literature as "the eternal torment of our language, when its longing turns back toward what it always misses ".
Julian Wolfrey argues in Victorian Hauntings that "to tell a story is always to invoke ghosts, to open a space through which something other returns" so that "all stories are, more or less, ghost stories" and all fiction is, more or less, hauntological. The best novels, according to Gabriel Josipovici , share a "sense of density of other worlds suggested but lying beyond words ".
For the reader or critic, the mystery of literature is the opacity — the irreducible remainder — at the heart of writing that can never be completely interpreted away. The whole western literary tradition itself is founded on the notion of posterity, which Paul Eluard described as the "harsh desire to endure" through one's works. And then, of course, there's the death of the author All this, as you can see, could go on for quite a while, so perhaps we should wonder if the concept does not just mean all things to all wo men.
Steen Christiansen , who is writing a book on the subject, explains that "hauntology bleeds into the fields of postmodernism, metafiction and retro-futurism and that there is no clear distinction — that would go against the tension which hauntology aims at". As a reflection of the zeitgeist, hauntology is, above all, the product of a time which is seriously "out of joint" Hamlet is one of Derrida's crucial points of reference in Spectres of Marx.
There is a prevailing sense among hauntologists that culture has lost its momentum and that we are all stuck at the "end of history". Meanwhile, new technologies are dislocating more traditional notions of time and place. Smartphones, for instance, encourage us never to fully commit to the here and now, fostering a ghostly presence-absence. Perhaps even more crucially, the web has brought about a "crisis of overavailability" that, in effect, signifies the "loss of loss itself": nothing dies any more, everything "comes back on YouTube or as a box set retrospective" like the looping, repetitive time of trauma Fisher.
This is why " retromania " has reached fever pitch in recent years, as Simon Reynolds demonstrates in his new book - a methodical dissection of "pop culture's addiction to its own past". Hauntology is not just a symptom of the times, though: it is itself haunted by a nostalgia for all our lost futures. Topics Literary criticism Books blog. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded.
Loading comments… Trouble loading? Most popular.
What is Ideology?
Hauntology, as a trend in recent critical and psychoanalytical work, has two distinct, related, and to some extent incompatible sources. The word itself, in its French form hantologie , was coined by Jacques Derrida in his Spectres de Marx , which has rapidly become one of the most controversial and influential works of his later period. Hauntology supplants its near-homonym ontology, replacing the priority of being and presence with the figure of the ghost as that which is neither present nor absent, neither dead nor alive. Attending to the ghost is an ethical injunction insofar as it occupies the place of the Levinasian Other: a wholly irrecuperable intrusion in our world, which is not comprehensible within our available intellectual frameworks, but whose otherness we are responsible for preserving. Hauntology is thus related to, and represents a new aspect of, the ethical turn of deconstruction which has been palpable for at least two decades. It has nothing to do with whether or not one believes in ghosts, as Fredric Jameson explains: Spectrality does not involve the conviction that ghosts exist or that the past and maybe even the future they offer to prophesy is still very much alive and at work, within the living present: all it says, if it can be thought to speak, is that the living present is scarcely as self-sufficient as it claims to be; that we would do well not to count on its density and solidity, which might under exceptional circumstances betray us. Abraham and Torok had become interested in transgenerational communication, particularly the way in which the undisclosed traumas of previous generations might disturb the lives of their descendants even and especially if they know nothing about their distant causes.
Hauntology a portmanteau of haunting and ontology  is a neologism introduced by French philosopher Jacques Derrida in his book Spectres of Marx. As a philosophical concept, it refers to the return or persistence of elements from the past, as in the manner of a ghost. It has since been invoked in fields such as visual arts, philosophy, electronic music , politics, fiction and literary criticism. Derrida used the term to refer to the atemporal nature of Marxism and its tendency to "'haunt Western society from beyond the grave. In the s, the term was applied to musicians who were said to explore ideas related to temporal disjunction, retrofuturism , cultural memory , and the persistence of the past.
Hauntology: A not-so-new critical manifestation
Hauntology is probably the first major trend in critical theory to have flourished online. In October , Mark Fisher - aka k-punk - described it as "the closest thing we have to a movement, a zeitgeist". A mere three years later, Adam Harper prefaced a piece on the subject with the following caveat: "I'm all too aware that it's no longer , the year to blog about hauntology". Two months ago, James Bridle predicted that the concept was "about six months away from becoming the title of a column in a Sunday supplement magazine". Only four months to go, then. My hunch is that hauntology is already haunting itself.