In vitro diagnosis of acute lymphoid leukemias. The initial diagnosis approach consists of a peripheral blood and bone marrow cytomorphological examination. The cytogenetic techniques have markedly contributed to the better understanding of molecular biology and ALL treatment. Chromosomal abnormalities, associated with the immunophenotyping panel, are the most important parameter for leukemia classification. Together with clinical and in vitro factors, this parameter allows the patients stratification in different risk groups, which is of great importance for establishing a prognosis and a suitable treatment. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliographic review of the laboratory methods by morphological, cytochemical, immune, cytogenetic and molecular genetic patterns, which are useful tools for acute lymphoid leukemia classification and diagnosis.
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Leucemia Linfocitica Aguda
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2007, Número 1
Cytogenetic analysis of blast cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has led to the recognition of specific non-random chromosomal abnormalities with prognostic value. Most patients with ALL show karyotype abnormalities, either in chromosome number ploidy or as structural changes such as translocations, inversions, or deletions. Many of these chromosomal alterations are associated with specific cytomorphological and immunological types. The greatest impact on patient management has been the finding that the cytogenetic result is an independent prognostic indicator. Certain karyotypes are associated with a favorable prognosis while others indicate a poor outcome. This has led to the administration of alternative therapies according to risk. This study focuses on the most important chromosomal abnormalities found in childhood ALL and their prognostic and therapeutic implications..
Leucemia Linfocítica Aguda
Leucemia linfocítica aguda