The 5. In , the larger 7. At the time of selection there had been criticism that the recoil power of the 7. The British had extensive evidence through their own experimentation with intermediate cartridges since and were on the point of adopting a.
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The previous standard NATO rifle cartridge was the 7. At the time of selection, there had been criticism that the 7. A soldier can carry more than twice as much 5. During the late s, ArmaLite and other U. When it became clear that there was not enough powder capacity to meet U.
This became the. At the same time, Springfield Armory's Earle Harvey had Remington create an even longer cartridge case then known as the. To prevent confusion with all of the competing. After playing with their own proprietary cartridge case design, the. With the U. However, the. The British had extensive evidence with their own experiments into an intermediate cartridge since and were on the point of introducing a.
The FN company had also been involved. The concerns about recoil and effectiveness were effectively overruled by the US within NATO, and the other NATO nations accepted that standardization was more important at the time than selection of the ideal cartridge. However the concerns would prove to be valid and led to the development of the 5. During the s, NATO members signed an agreement to select a second, smaller caliber cartridge to replace the 7.
Of the cartridges tendered, the 5. The SS used a heavier 4 g 62 gr bullet with a steel core inserted, fired at a lower muzzle velocity for better long-range performance, specifically to meet a requirement that the bullet be able to penetrate through one side of a steel helmet at m.
Some believe that this requirement has made the M less capable of fragmentation than the M as discussed below. According to the official NATO proofing guidelines the 5. This is equal to the C. The 5. As with all spitzer shaped projectiles it is prone to yaw in soft tissue. These fragments can disperse through flesh and bone, inflicting additional internal injuries.
Fragmentation, if and when it occurs, imparts much greater damage to human tissue than bullet dimensions and velocities would suggest. This fragmentation effect is highly dependent on velocity, and therefore barrel length: short-barreled carbines generate less muzzle velocity and therefore lose wounding effectiveness at much shorter ranges than longer-barreled rifles.
The rapid transfer of energy also results in wounding effects beyond the tissue directly crushed and torn by the bullet and fragments. These remote wounding effects are known as hydrostatic shock. There has been much criticism of the poor performance of the bullet on target, especially the first-shot kill rate when using firearms that don't achieve the velocity to cause fragmentation.
This wounding problem has been cited in incidents beginning in the first Gulf war, Somalia, and ending in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. In recent lab testing of M, it has been shown that the bullets do not fragment reliably or consistently from round-to-round, displaying widely variable performance. In several cases, yawing did not begin until 7"" of penetration. This was with all rounds coming from the same manufacturer.
This lack of wounding capacity typically becomes an increasingly significant issue as range increases e. The Combat operations the past few months have again highlighted terminal performance deficiencies with 5.
M FMJ. These problems have primarily been manifested as inadequate incapacitation of enemy forces despite their being hit multiple times by M bullets. These failures appear to be associated with the bullets exiting the body of the enemy soldier without yawing or fragmenting.
This failure to yaw and fragment can be caused by reduced impact velocities as when fired from short barrel weapons or when the range increases. It can also occur when the bullets pass through only minimal tissue, such as a limb or the chest of a thin, malnourished individual, as the bullet may exit the body before it has a chance to yaw and fragment.
FMJ bullets constructed with a steel penetrator in the nose, the composition, thickness, and relative weights of the jackets, penetrators, and cores are quite variable, as are the types and position of the cannelures.
However, if the bullet is moving too slowly to reliably fragment on impact, the wound size and potential to incapacitate a person is greatly reduced.
Several alternate cartridges have been developed in an attempt to address the perceived shortcomings of 5. Recently, advances have been made in 5. The US military has adopted for limited issue a grain 5. The heavy, lightly constructed bullet fragments more violently at short range and also has a longer fragmentation range. Originally designed for use in the Mk 12 SPR, the ammunition has found favor with special forces units who were seeking a more effective cartridge to fire from their M4A1 carbines.
It should be noted, however, that commercially available loadings using these heavier and longer bullets can be prohibitively expensive and cost much more than military surplus ammunition. Additionally, these heavy-for-caliber loadings sacrifice even more penetrative ability than the M round which has a steel penetrator tip. Performance of 5.
Military cases are generally made from thicker brass than commercial cases; this reduces the powder capacity an important consideration for handloaders , and the NATO specification allows a higher chamber pressure. This difference in measurement method accounts for upwards of To address these issues, various proprietary chambers exist, such as the Wylde chamber Rock River Arms or the ArmaLite chamber, which are designed to handle both 5.
The dimensions and leade of the. Using commercial. Using 5. Some commercial rifles marked as ". It should also be noted that the upper receiver to which the barrel with its chamber are attached and the lower receiver are entirely separate parts in AR style rifles. If the lower receiver has either. In the more practical terms, as of late most AR parts suppliers engineer their complete upper assemblies not to be confused with stripped uppers where the barrel is not included to support both calibers in order to protect their customers from injuries and to protect their businesses from litigation following the said injuries.
There have been numerous attempts to create an intermediate cartridge that addresses the complaints of 5. Other cartridges focused on superior short-range performance by sacrificing long-distance performance due to relatively short engagement distances typically observed in modern warfare. As of late , none of those cartridges gained any significant traction beyond special forces and sport shooting communities. It uses a grain 5. Two versions of the round have been procured to date.
Initial production runs, designated Mark Mod 0, lacked a cannelure. Subsequent production, designated Mk Mod 1, added a cannelure to the bullet for effective crimping. Apparently it is superior to the standard M round when fired from an M4 or M16 rifle. It evidently possesses superior stopping power, and can allow for engagements to be extended to up to meters.
It appears that this round can drastically improve the performance of any AR15 platform weapon chambered to.
Superior accuracy, wounding capacity, stopping power and range power has made this the preferred round of many Special Forces operators, and highly desirable as a replacement for the older, Belgian made, 5. EnlargeSwiss Army round Gw Pat 90 ammunition box. The 5,6mm Gw Pat 90 or GP 90 5. The Swiss refer to the round as the 5,6mm Gw Pat 90, although it is interchangeable with the 5. The Gw Pat 90 is optimized for use in 5.
Previous experience of a change in standard rifle had proved that changing the distance of fire for the training ranges was more expensive than the design of a new ammunition; this prompted the design of a cartridge nominally capable at meters.
The cartridge was also designed to reduce pollution by controlling lead emissions. The bullet was originally clad with a nickel alloy jacket, however, this was found to cause excessive barrel wear, so in the nickel jackets were replaced with tombac jackets. In addition, in a copper plug was added to the base of the bullet to address environmental concerns.
The ammunition is manufactured in three variations: the standard FMJ round, the tracer round, and a blank round. The bullet is a 4. The required accuracy for Gw Pat 90 ammunition out of factory test barrels is 63 mm 0. The Gw Pat 90 cartridge dimensions are in accordance with the civilian C. The Gw Pat 90 is used both in the Swiss military and in sport shooting. The very high level of individual training in the Swiss militia every single soldier bearing a weapon has to shoot for qualification once a year; see Gun politics in Switzerland and the overall use of the Gw Pat 90 by the many Swiss citizens who shoot in competitions and for amusement has resulted in significant input on its usage.
Over 1 billion cartridges have been produced as of Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Under The 5. It is derived from, but not identical to, the. When the bullet impacts at high velocity and yaws in tissue, fragmentation creates a rapid transfer of energy which can result in massive wounding but relatively low hydrostatic shock effects.
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