Root bark, stem bark, fruits, seeds, and leaves. Root bark is recommended for medicinal use, but market samples generally contain stem bark. Register Login. Edit Page. Oroxylum indicum Plant Profile Therapeutic uses Morphological characteristics Floral characteristics Distribution Climate and soil Propagation material Agro-technique Planting in the field Harvest management. Oroxylum indicum Therapeutic uses Root bark of sonapatha is an astringent, tonic, anti-diarrhoeal, diuretic, anodyne, and is used to cure dropsy.
|Published (Last):||2 June 2013|
|PDF File Size:||14.65 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||8.97 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The stem bark of Oroxylum indicum O. For edema formation 0. It showed a fall of edemas The EtOH extract of O. In OGTT glibenclamide revealed reduction of glucose level to 7. Antihyperglycemic activities were assessed for 8- and week duration in diabetic rats.
Glibenclamide reduced glucose level from This study remarked that O. The trumpet tree Oroxylum indicum O. This tree is immensely valued in India for its various ayurvedic preparations [ 2 ]. The whole plant is used as a utilizable part for medicinal value [ 3 ].
In folk medicine practices O. The plant parts, especially seed, ripen fruits, both stem and root bark, and leaves, are cherished for various ayurvedic formulations such as Amritarishta, Dantyadyarista, Narayana Taila, Dhanvantara Ghrita, Brahma Rasayana, and Chyawanprash Awaleha [ 5 ]. Those ayurvedic preparations are used for inflammation, ulcer, cancer, diarrhea, fever, jaundice, arthritis, and oxidative stress. But all ethnomedical uses of this plant are not experimentally proved by modern technology and research experiments.
In ayurveda and folk medicine this plant part is used as medicinal agents for various disorders such as cancer, diarrhea, diabetes, fever, bone pain, ulcer, and jaundice but this entire claim is not scientifically proved [ 6 — 8 ].
Fruits pods were extensively reported for inhibition of adipogenesis and lipase activity [ 9 ]. Leaves were claimed for antioxidant activities, antiviral activities, especially chikungunya, and reduction of oxidative stress [ 13 — 16 ]. Young leaves, fruits, pods, and unripe seeds are edible and contained crude protein, ash, crude fiber, carbohydrates, amines, amides, carboxylic acids, and aromatic compounds [ 17 ]. Leaves contained important flavonoids, namely, chrysin, baicalein, baicaleinO-glucoside, baicaleinO-diglucoside, chrysinO-glucuronide, baicaleinO-glucuronide, and a chrysin-diglucoside [ 18 ].
For bark or stem bark, many biochemical activities have been assessed like antimicrobial, antidiarrheal, analgesic, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antiproliferative, antimetastatic, antiobesity potential, and antioxidant activities [ 20 — 31 ] and seed has antidiabetic potentials and showed synergistic potentials with acarbose [ 32 ].
A number of flavonoids compounds had been separated and identified especially from bark both stem and root leaves and seeds. Most prominent flavonoids are baicalein, chrysin, ellagic acid, oroxylin A baicaleino-glucoside , oroxin A, 5-hydroxy-4, 7-dimethoxy flavone, 7-methoxy chrysin, etc. Various research works had been conducted for the screening of toxicological studies of the whole part of O.
But it was found that nitrosated ethanolic extract of the bark of O. Experimental procedure confirmed that O. After an extensive literature search, this study was aimed at investigating anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and liver enzyme SGPT and SGOT activities of stem bark of O. For the current investigation, the fresh and raw stem barks of O. The stem barks were chopped followed by washing and drying at ambient temperature for 72 hours.
To obtain powder drying, grinding and sieving of the dried portion were followed by weighing using an analytical balance. To prepare crude extract g powdered material was soaked in methanol and the amount of methanol was ml. The round amber color bottle was tightly sealed, kept for a total of 20 days accompanied by occasional shaking and stirring.
By using Whatman filter paper filtration was carried. For the preparation of crude extract dried stem bark was weighed for g and grinded to 60 mesh size. This was followed by filtration and the filtrate was dried using rotary evaporator yield The extracted material was then extracted by petroleum ether PET followed by drying yield 0. The residual material was then air-dried and liquid ammonia solution was used to moisten the dried material.
The residual material again was extracted with chloroform CLF followed by drying yield 1. The dried fractions were conserved in air tight humidity protected borosilicate glass container.
Both Swiss Albino and Long Evans rats aged weeks, having the weight of to g, were subjected for anti-inflammatory, antiulcerative, antidiabetic, and antidyslipidemic test.
Liver enzyme concentration had also been tested. Groupings were done according to need for each test and protocols among with time duration. Both sex rats were used but kept separately for the purpose of avoiding breeding. Animal ethics had been strictly maintained and handled them in the most human way. Coprophagy carefully was prevented. The animals groupings were done randomly. All reagents were prepared instantly. Within the whole study period, it was ensured that rats were healthy and playful.
The cervical dislocation procedure was used to sacrifice all rats. Animals after sacrifice dumped according to rule [ 57 — 60 ]. Animal ethical committee approved the whole protocol. Ibuprofen was a generous gift of Eskayef Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. Swiss Albino rats aged weeks having the weight of to g were subjected for anti-inflammatory study.
Each group contained 6 rats. The animals were kept whole day fasting and only allowed drinking water before the experiment started and coprophagy was carefully prevented.
Six rats were in each group and a total of six groups were made. Group I was considered as control, treated with only 0. Group II was given 0. The paw edema volume was computed every hour using slide calipers and the left hind paw was considered as a reference of the noninflamed paw for comparison. The following formula was used for calculation of percentage inhibition of paw edema: Vc denotes the average paw volume of control animal and Vt represents the average paw volume of treated animal.
To evaluate histopathological examination, rat paws were collected 6 hours after the induction with an inflammatory agent carrageenan. Omeprazole was collected from the Eskayef Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.
Solvents and reagents were confirmed to be of analytical grade. Oral administration of omeprazole was done by dissolving it in dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO. Long Evans rats aged weeks having the weight of to g were subjected for antiulcerative study.
The animals were kept fasting 24 hours before the experiment started and coprophagy was carefully prevented.
Pretreatment procedure was followed for examining mucosal damage in gastric cell lining. To do so, standard drug omeprazole and all distinguished doses of aforesaid test samples of O. Ulcer model was induced by ethanol acid in a fixed dose measured in each rat except for normal control. Waiting till 90 minutes after persuasion of ulcer all rats were sacrificed and stomachs were collected and instantly excised along the larger curvature and washed.
The magnifying lens was used to examine ulcers in gastric mucosa and scoring of ulcer calculated [ 63 ]. Crude EtOH of stem bark of O.
The methanol extract and its different fractions were used for finding out the ulcerative profile. Ulcer index was calculated by using the mean ulcer score. The ulcer protection percentage was estimated by using the following equation: denotes the average ulcer index of control animal and represents the average ulcer index of treated animal. Lesions were assessed by unbiased neutral observers using a 7 binocular magnifier.
The drug glibenclamide and simvastatin both were obtained from Eskayef Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. A total of 84 Long Evans male rats were grouped for both glucose tolerance test and antidiabetic tests.
In glucose tolerance test a total of 24 rats were used in four different groups after time intervals 0, 0. Other 60 rats were divided into five individual groups. Group I was considered as normal control. Group II was diabetic control. Group III was treated with standard glibenclamide. The same grouping was repeated and implemented in case of finding hypolipidemic activities by simvastatin and experimental crude samples.
Glibenclamide dissolved in DMSO and administered at a dose of 1. For combination therapy the 0. After finishing 8-week and week treatment the rats were anesthetized with phenobarbital sodium. With heparinized syringe, an average of 4 ml blood was collected by cutting the thoracic artery and the collected sample was centrifuged at rpm for 20 minutes and serum was collected for the test. After overnight fasting, 1. Glibenclamide, a blood glucose lowering drug, was administered at a dose of 1.
Five different groups were prepared for testing the antihyperglycemic effect. A total of 12 hours of starvation were maintained for experimental rats. All the rats were tested for a baseline glucose level using a glucometer. The first group for the normal group received no drug, the second group was selected for the diabetic control group, and the third group stands for glibenclamide received a dose of 1. The fourth group stands for methanolic extract of O.
The fifth group received the combination of drugs glibenclamide and MEOI mentioned earlier. For the determination of blood glucose level in the diabetic rat model induced by alloxan, 8- and week treatment protocols were conducted. According to this procedure glibenclamide, MEOI, and combination of both glibenclamide and MEOI were administered daily and after completion of treatment glucose level was detected by glucometer.
Collected serum from thoracic artery was subjected to various lipid levels.
Leaves compound, pinnate, with opposite pinnae, very large cm long, almost triangular in outline; primary rachis stout, cylindric; secondary and tertiary rachis striate; petiolule 5. Capsule cm long, flat, purple brown; seeds many, flattened with broad hyaline papery wings. Best supported on Google Chrome, Firefox 3. Powered by the open source Biodiversity Informatics Platform. Technology partner Strand Life Sciences. India Biodiversity Portal. Created on.
India Biodiversity Portal
Oroxylum indicum is a species of flowering plant belonging to the monotypic genus Oroxylum and the family Bignoniaceae , are commonly called midnight horror ,  oroxylum ,  Indian trumpet flower ,  broken bones ,  Indian caper , or tree of Damocles. Various segments of the tree are used in traditional medicine. The large leaf stalks wither and fall off the tree and collect near the base of the trunk, appearing to look like a pile of broken limb bones. The pinnate leaves are approximately 1 metre 3. The tree is a night-bloomer and flowers are adapted to natural pollination by bats. Ooroxylum indicum is native to the Indian subcontinent , the Himalayan foothills with a part extending to Bhutan and southern China, Indochina and the Malesia regions.
Subharti University, Meerut , India. Oroxylum indicum Vent. The chemical constituents obtained from different parts of plant include baicaleinO-diglucoside Oroxylin B , baicaleinO-glucoside, chrysin, apegenin, prunetin, sitosterol, oroxindin, biochanin-A, ellagic acid, baicalein and its 6- and 7-glucuronides, scutellarein, tetuin, antraquinone and aloe-emodin. Various parts of the plant are used in Ayurveda and folk medicine for the treatment of different ailments such as cancer, diarrhea, fever, ulcer and jaundice.
Oroxylum indicum L. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. If you would like to support this site, please consider Donating. Home Search Contact.