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You can mail me to the following address abir. Hi Anon, Special thanks to you for helping me from the beginning. I could not do this job without your help and hope you will help me in my next projects also. Overview of C……………………………………………………. Constants, Variables and Data Types…………. Operators and Expressions…………………………… 25 iv. Managing Input and Output Operations……… 35 v.
Decision Making and Branching …………………….. Decision Making and Looping………………………… 57 vii. Arrays………………………………………………………………… 75 viii. A define is a preprocessor compiler directive.
We often use certain unique constants in a program. These constants may appear repeatedly in a number of places in the program. We face two problems in the subsequent use of such programs. These are 1. Assignment of such constants to a symbolic name frees us from these problems. So if we want to define values to a symbolic constant and to define any statements which uses more frequently in the program we use the define directive. Whenever a symbolic name is encountered, the compiler substitutes the value associated with the name automatically.
To change the value, we have to simply change the definition. A constant is defined as follows: define symbolic-name value of constant 1. C programs are divided into modules or functions. Some functions are written by users, like us, and many others are stored in the C library. Library functions are grouped category-wise and stored in different files known as header files. If we want to access the functions stored in the library, it is necessary to tell the compiler about the files to be accessed.
Preprocessor directives are placed at the beginning of a program. What does void main void mean? The main is a part of a every C program. C permits different forms of main statement. Following forms are allowed. This may be explicitly indicated by using the keyword void inside the parentheses. We may also specify the keyword int or void before the word main. The keyword void means that the function does not return any information to the operating system and int means that the function returns an integer value to the operating system.
It is a good practice to use comment lines in the beginning to give information such as name of the program, author, date, etc. Comment characters are also used in other lines to indicate line numbers. The generous use of comments inside a program cannot be overemphasized. Since comments do not affect the execution speed and the size of a compiled program, we should use them liberally in our programs.
Judiciously inserted comments not only increase the readability but also help to understand the program logic. Look of a program is very important. If anyone is working in an IT industry, as his or her program is going to be referred by many people. When they read the program they should get clear idea about what that program is written for and they should not even need to read all the program.
For that when anyone writes a program one must use some coding conventions, such as: standard variable name format, function name format etc. A proper indentation of braces and statements is very important for the good look of a program. This is very important for debugging and testing the program. C is a free form language. Blank spaces are completely valid at the beginning, middle or end of a line except in keywords and identifiers. Spaces are permitted in stings which are enclosed in double quotes " ".
An overview of a C program A C program may contain one or more sections: The documentation section consists of a set of common lines giving the name of the program, the author and other details, which the programmer would like to use later. The link section provides instructions to the compiler to link functions from the system library.
The definition section defines all symbolic constants. There are some variables that are used in more than one function. This section also declares all the user- defined functions. Every C program must have one main function section.
This section contains two parts, declaration part and executable part. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. There is at least one statement in the executable part. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces.
The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing brace. The closing brace of the main function section is the logical end of the program. All statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon ;. The subprogram section contains all the user-defined functions that are called in the main function.
User-defined functions are generally placed immediately after the main function, although they may appear in any order. All sections, except the main function section may be absent when they are not required.
Creating the program: Once we load the UNIX operating system into the memory, the computer is ready to receive program. The program must be entered into a file. The file name can consist of letters, digits and special characters, followed by a dot and a letter c. Examples of valid file names are: hello.
If it does not yet exist, the file has to be created so that it is ready to receive the new program. Any corrections in the program are done under the editor. When the editing is over, the file is saved in the disk. It can then be referenced any time later by its file name. The program that is entered into the file is known the source program, since it represents the original form of the program. Executing the program: Execution is a simple task. The command a. During execution, the program may request for some data to be entered through the keyboard.
Sometimes the program does not produce the desired results. Perhaps, something is wrong with the program logic or data. Then it would be necessary to correct the source program or the data.
In case the source program is modified, the entire process of compiling, linking and executing the program should be repeated. To compile and link source program files, we must append all the files names to the cc command.
It is also possible to compile each file separately and link them later. They can be linked together by the command cc mod1. This approach is useful when one of the multiple source files need to be changed and recompiled or an already existing object files is to be used along with the program to be compiled. C Compiler and preprocessor.
O Library a. False b All variables must be given a type when they are declared. True c Declarations can appear anywhere in a program. False e The underscore can be used anywhere in an identifier. True f The keyword void is a data type in C. True g Floating point data constants, by default, denote float type values. False h Like variables, constants have a type. True i Character constants are coded using double quotes.
Programming in ANSI C 3rd Edition - 9780070534773
Learn the concepts of object-oriented programming, why they exist, and how to utilize them to create sophisticated and efficient object-oriented applications. This book expects you to be familiar with basic programming concepts. It is no longer enough to understand the syntax and features of the language. You must also be familiar with how these features are put to use. Get up to speed quick on the new concepts of object-oriented design patterns, CRC modeling, and the new Universal Modeling Language UML , which provides a systematic way to diagram the relationship between classes.
Programming in ANSI C
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