GENETYKA POPULACJI I METODY HODOWLANE PDF

Synergy factors in the analysis of lamb survival. Metody hodowlane i genetyka populacji A well-known mutation in RYR1 alters distribution of adipose tissue in gilts. Projekty badawcze realizowane w ostatnich latach: Detection of pig genome regions determining production traits using an information theory approach. Archiv Tierzucht 58, Cytological quality of milk of primiparous cows kept in cubicles bedded with separated manure.

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Input values number of homozygous, heterozygous and rare homozygous individuals in integers form, are used to count alleles frequencies - "p" and "q" values, by means of Hardy-Weinberg principle the expected numbers of homozygous, heterozygous and rare homozygous individuals are obtained.

Observed and expected values are compared by the chi-square goodness of fit test. If at the used level of significance, there are statistically important differences, application will count the fixation index - Fis, positive values may means a reduction of heterozygosity, caused by for example Wahlund effect, inbreed or genetic drift.

While negative Fis value means the excess of heterozygotes, caused by for example breeding selection or bottleneck effect. Chi-square test family is a statistical instrument which allows examining the relation between variables.

The chi-square tests must be used with assumptions:. The expected values for independence chi-square and chi-square value are counted following formulas:. If the values in the cell do not fulfil third condition look at chi-square assumptions , we recommend to use chi-square with Yates's correction for continuity, following formula:. It is important to note that this correction is adequate for 2x2 contingency tables, otherwise more accurate results may be obtained by combining columns or rows.

The coefficient of contingency are measures of association, they can be used to estimate the strength of a relationship between variables. Total values must be the same for both observed and expected frequencies, expected frequencies less than 1 are not allowed. Polymorphic information content PIC , as well as Heterozygosity, is a measure of locus polymorphism counted for markers used in linkage analysis.

Where fi is frequency of amplified band 1 and 1 - fi is frequency of absence of band 0 in study group. In case of dominant marker it is possible to count an approximate number of heterozygous individuals based on Hardy-Weinberg law:. Based on counted alleles frequencies we could estimate the expected number of genotypes from Hardy-Weinberg law. Genetic distance is a measure of differences between pairs of populations, there are a couple of methods allows to estimate differences, based on alleles frequency in examined loci, such as:.

Geometric distance is calculated following formula:. When some of the allele frequencies are equal to 0, geometric distance is impossible to calculate, because Jx, Jy and Jxy are geometric means of jx, jy and jxy values. In this case app return error: "The quantity or quality of the data is inappropriate! This model of genetic distance estimation was considered more effective than other methods. It is calculated following formula:. The results of genetic distance estimation are presented in the form of distance matrix and dendrogram.

The construction of dendrograms is performed by the Python library "scipy. In case of Fasta file upload and sequences downloaded from GenBank, app return file containing consensus sequence in Fasta format. Allows to transform reverse, complement, reverse-complement, transcription, translation one or numerous sequences in FASTA format. User panel. Dot plot Tool to obtain consensus sequence Additional tools.

Automatic predictive model constructor How to use Documentation. The chi-square tests must be used with assumptions: test group must be sufficiently large. Chi-square goodness of fit test: Allows to examine the compliance of the observed and expected values. Genetic distance Genetic distance is a measure of differences between pairs of populations, there are a couple of methods allows to estimate differences, based on alleles frequency in examined loci, such as: Standard genetic distance Nei, Geometric genetic distance Nei, Geometric distance is calculated following formula: Caution!

Chesnokov, A. Artemyeva : Bioinformatics and math statistics, Agricultural Biology, 50 5 : Sorana D. Yates, F. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Suppl. Antony Ugoni, Bruce F. Quinnipiac University.

Nei, R. Chesser : Estimation of fixation indices and gene diversites, Annal of Human Genetics, 47, Chesse : Influence of gene flow and breeding tactics on gene diversity within populations. Nei M. Gene frequency data. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 19, Carl E. Hildebrand, David C. Torney, and Robert P. Van Bockstaele M. Bioinformatics , 25, Edgar, Robert C. Create an account if you want to save your calculations created with our app. No more text or Excel files, everything in one place!

Click the button below to create a user account and login in. No, thanks Create an account.

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GENETYKA POPULACJI I METODY HODOWLANE PDF

However, in spite of long-term selection, non-blue-dun individuals, and those with the markings have still been appearing. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic structure of the Polish Konik population with respect to coat colour and, on this basis, to propose improved methods of selection. The material comprised Polish Konik horses registered in all eight volumes of the studbook published so far. Key words: Polish Konik horses, blue dun colour, white markings, selection..

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E-mail : Ten adres pocztowy jest chroniony przed spamowaniem. Mail: Ten adres pocztowy jest chroniony przed spamowaniem. Functional analysis of proteins associated with the acquisition and release of deepphysiological dormancy of seeds. Research team: Tomasz A.

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