We asked our expert on lean production, Stefan Armbruster, how companies can make the most effective use of mechanical automation and what kinds of perils and pitfalls they need to watch out for. As an integral component of the lean philosophy, Karakuri solutions help avoid many types of waste in companies. Continuous improvement means wanting to get better and better all the time. Karakuri is one way to get better.
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One of the core philosophies of TPS is kaizen, often translated from Japanese as continuous improvement. It is the idea that one should continuously find ways to eliminate non-value adding activities, and in the process develop oneself and others to get better at kaizen.
The idea of kaizen begetting more kaizen. Kaizen is a human capital enrichment philosophy. One of the ways Toyota inspire their employees to nurture their creativity is Karakuri Kaizen.
It is said that in the early seventeenth century, during the Edo period, European clocks were introduced in Japan. This sparked a wide curiosity amongst the Japanese craftsmen.
The idea of developing motion mechanisms with elaborate sets of springs and gears was new to them. These were dolls that moved around and did several tasks such as bring tea to a guest and then bring it back to the owner, or climb a set of stairs.
There was even a magician doll that performed a cups and balls routine. What set the karakuri dolls of Japan separate from the European clockwork mechanism was the humanization of the dolls. The dolls were created with high importance to its physical features such as face, movement of head and limbs; in an effort to the make the doll life-like. Aesthetics was of utmost importance. All the mechanisms were cleverly hidden beneath clothing such that no mechanism was visible from outside.
The doll moved around as if it is alive. The karakuri dolls brought fascinated delight to its spectators. All the motion was achieved using simple springs, gravity and gears. No external power source was used. How does this all relate to the manufacturing floor? One of the challenges that is often posed to an organization is to increase its production. This is often tackled by either hiring more employees or by using automation. Automation is highly attractive even though it is sometimes cost prohibitive.
It might make sense that the nonvalue added activities such as transportation and repeated motions could be replaced with a robot. Most modern manufacturing operations are riddled with automation. However, this comes with its own problems. The main one is that the automation becomes the focus of manufacturing rather than the employees.
The high cost, large equipment becomes a monument that everything has to work around the monument. It is an expensive way to ensure that the status quo is maintained. To get the most out of the high expense, the new machine is run around the clock increasing the unwanted inventory and it raises the cost of the operation. This is where karakuri kaizen comes in. Karakuri, as explained before, is a low-cost automation that does not utilize external power resources.
It is comparatively small and works solely based on gravity, counterweights, springs, gears etc. The key point of karakuri kaizen is that it should inspire more kaizen. Generally, a challenge is posed to the operators to come up with a means to remove unwanted strain and motion, and to eliminate waste. Normally, this would be task where a heavy part s is lifted and moved to another location or where a part is turned around and operated on.
The first impulse is to automate the process. This would require an expensive piece of equipment. Karakuri kaizen focuses on solving the problem on hand with what is readily available and using minimal resources.
This might be construed as pushing to minimize capital expenditure. However, the most important part is that the operators are being challenge to use their wit and brains. Instead, the operator does.
The mechanism generally is such that it can easily be modified if needed, and even replaced with another karakuri. Unlike, a heavy piece of machinery, a karakuri does not become a monument.
It is built specifically to achieve a purpose, and thus it is highly customized. It is also designed in-house. When Toyota started car manufacturing, it did not have a lot of capital or resources. They modified existing machinery to achieve its needs. They first used what they had in-house before going outside for solutions. They relied on their employees to come up with ingenious solutions to their problems.
This meant that the solutions were made specifically for their problems. Generally, when an equipment or a software is purchased, it is not always made specific to the need of the customer. The customer often has to work with what was offered. Toyota had to come up with ingenious solutions to solve their problems without spending much capital.
The only capital they would come up with was human capital. Even after Toyota became successful, this mindset was maintained. Toyota has tried to use as little external power as possible in its car manufacturing since its foundation.
Karakuri kaizen is one of the Toyota Way values. Karakuri is a mechanism that uses gravity, springs and gears instead of external power sources to manipulate objects.
A karakuri does not always work well on the first try. If something breaks, we rebuild it, trying continuously to make it better, always reforming the mechanism. Developing karakuri is also about developing people.
What is the point of kaizen? The simple answer is often to make things better. If kaizen does not beget more kaizen and if it does not improve the thinking of the persons involved, then it is missing the meaning of kaizen. Kaizen should lead the employees to develop their abilities to see and identify waste, and come up with ways to eliminate waste.
This means that the employee becomes part of the meta-system rather than just doing what they are told. The human being can either be merely trained, broken in, mechanically instructed, or really enlightened.
One trains dogs and horses, and one can also train human beings. Training, however, does little; what matters above all is that they learn to think. The aim should be the principles from which all actions spring. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.
Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Menu Skip to content. As Toyota veteran Kazuhiko Furui explained: Toyota has tried to use as little external power as possible in its car manufacturing since its foundation. Final Words: What is the point of kaizen? I will finish with some fine words from the great philosopher, Immanuel Kant: The human being can either be merely trained, broken in, mechanically instructed, or really enlightened.
Introduction to Karakuri Kaizen
Sep 17 Such devices have long been used as part of TPS and Lean, but now we have a generic name for them. The principles of Karakuri Kaizen given at the end of this video are as follows:. The best known are tea-serving dolls, like the one in the featured image. As Karakuri dolls are a reminder of ancient ingenuity, the term has a positive connotation in Japan. I once used a picture of one in a magazine ad for US-made automation software, to connect the product with the local culture.
One of the core philosophies of TPS is kaizen, often translated from Japanese as continuous improvement. It is the idea that one should continuously find ways to eliminate non-value adding activities, and in the process develop oneself and others to get better at kaizen. The idea of kaizen begetting more kaizen. Kaizen is a human capital enrichment philosophy.
Fundamentals of Karakuri Kaizen
This was a very impressive exhibit, and I learned a lot about karakuri from the many different examples shown there by over one hundred exhibitors. Organized annually by the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance, it is to my knowledge the biggest showcase of karakuri in the world. This was an exciting visit that I will process in a whole series of blog posts on karakuri Fundamentals and Examples. Karakuri is the use of mechanic gadgetry rather than electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic devices.
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